I daļa

Gramatika, leksika, stilistika

Vārda diahroniskais un areālais aspekts



Māris Baltiņš

Latvian Literary Society and Collection of Neologisms and Less Known Words (1874) of Teacher Pēteris Zēvalds 


Brigita Bušmane

Insight Into the Names of Porridge Attested in Regional Subdialects

of Latvian 


Anete Daina

Numerals in Ērģeme Subdialect and its Surroundings 


Аgnese Dubova

Die Textbausteine der Einleitung des wissenschaftlichen Artikels und deren Formulierungen 


Anna Frīdenberga

Word-Formation Nest with the Basic Word gādāt in the Early Latvian Written Sources 


Iveta Kopankina, Artūrs Viļums

Deictic, Prospective and Retrospective Constructions in the Latvian Language of Science 


Karīna Krieviņa

Personal Names on Tombstones Inscriptions of the Verbeļi Cemetery in Nīca Municipality 


Sintija Ķauķīte

Punctuation Marks in Early Written Latvian Texts 


Dite Liepa, Kristīne Mežapuķe

Overview of TV Journalists’ Language Usage (2019–2020) 


Evija Liparte

Mājsēde, skorbuļēra, tišmājis, sejauts und andere: Einblick in die Substantivkomposita des Jahres 2020 


Ilga Migla

Einige Ethnonyme in den Phraseologismen der lettischen Sprache 


Ieva Ozola

Geschrieben in Mundart: Texte der niederkurländischen Mundarten 


Anna Stafecka

The no-Stems of Verbs in Latvian Dialects 


Ilze Štrausa

Insight into the Motivation of Choosing Cat Names 


Agris Timuška

Apple of Paradise and Its Cognates in Dialects of European Languages: A Geolinguistic Survey 


Jānis Valdmanis

Laimdots Ceplītis – an Important Personality in Latvian Linguistics 


Daira Vēvere

The Parallels of the Linguistic Features in the Curonian and Tamian Subdialects 


II daļa

Vārda sinhroniskais aspekts


Līga Beļicka, Ruta Svētiņa

Use of Online Lexicographic Tools for the Promotion of Academic Skills in the Course of English for Specific Purposes


Olga Billere

Proverbs and Sayings: Differences and Similarities 


Baiba Egle

The Case of the Rucava Brioche: Aspects of Interpreting and Written Text Production


Eglė Gabrėnaitė, Domantė Vaišvylaitė

Pandemijos retorika: argumentavimo strategijos socialinio tinklo „Facebook“ komentaruose


Linda Gaile

Die Bedeutung der Redekorpora in der Erforschung der zielsprachlichen Verdolmetschung

The Importance of the Speech Corpus in the Research of Simultaneous Interpreting in the Target Language 


Andrejs Gorbunovs

Children Rights Discourse in United Kingdom 



Sigita Ignatjeva

Scientific Language in Joycean Studies 


Nedas Jurgaitis

Zur Entstehung und Entwicklung des begriffes „Konzept“ in der kognitiven Semantik

Origins and Evolution of the Notion “Concept” in Cognitive Semantics 


Inga Kaija, Daiva Puškorjute-Riduliene

Verbs būt and būti in Acquisition of the Second Baltic Language 


Regīna Kvašīte, Kazimiers Župerka

Names of Villagers in the Lithuanian and Latvian Languages 


Diāna Laiveniece

First Sentence: The Announcement of a Scientific Article 


Dzintra Lele-Rozentāle, Baiba Egle

Globalisierung, regionale Spezifik und Sprachengebrauch in wissenschaftlichen Artikeln 


Diāna Liepa

Foreign Language Studies: In Search of a Common Approach 


Nijolė Litevkienė

Anatomical Terms in Jurgis Žilinskas’ Short Textbook of Osteology and Syndesmology 


Olena Materynska

Anthropozentrische Darstellung und Rezeption des Krieges im Deutschen und Ukrainischen 


Līga Romāne-Kalniņa

The Linguistic Profile of the Speeches of the President of Latvia Egils Levits: Ceremonial, Judicial, or Political Rhetoric? 



Dzintra Šulce, Dana Tihomirova

Quotes in Scientific Texts and Comments Related to Their Use 


Ziņas par autoriem / About the Authors 




In the 25th issue of scientific articles’ collection of Liepāja University, “The Word: Aspects of Research”, the tradition established is continued thematically – to analyse the word from different viewpoints in various fields of linguistics. The articles’ authors are teachers from multiple Latvian higher education institutions and employees of other scientific institutions and researchers from Lithuania and Ukraine. The issue is divided into two parts according to the aspects of research. The articles are in Latvian, Lithuanian, English, and German.

In Part I, readers will find research in diachronic and areal linguistics.

Several articles are dedicated to morphology and phonetics of subdialects. The subjects and sources researched vary: use of numerals in one, Ērģeme, subdialect has been researched (Anete Daina) as well as parallels of phonetic and morphological features of a group of subdialects, Curonian and Tamian subdialects (Daira Vēvere), specifics of the use of one morphological form (the no-stems of verbs) in different dialects and subdialects in the Latvian language (Anna Stafecka).

In the field of lexis and semantics, Brigita Bušmane’s research on food names covers a wide area and gives a view into the names of porridge in Latvian subdialects. Also, Agris Timuška’s geolinguistic research on the name of tomato in European languages is of wide geographical scope.

Some articles continue the topic of Southern Kurzeme (Lejaskurzeme) characteristic to researchers from Liepāja. Ieva Ozola investigates how the features of Southern Kurzeme subdialects manifest themselves in the literary and journalism texts written in the second half of the 20th century and the 21st century. In Karīna Krieviņa’s research on personal names in Verbeļi cemetery (Nīca municipality), sociolinguistic and onomastic viewpoints have been merged.

Phraseological units have been investigated as part of the history of lexis (Ilga Migla), as well as derivatives with the basic word gādāt in the early Latvian written sources (Anna Frīdenberga). Sintija Ķauķīte has focused on the research of the use of punctuation marks in the early written Latvian texts.

In diachronic research articles, the readers can become acquainted with two linguists’ historical contributions to Latvian linguistics. Māris Baltiņš provides a view into work of Pēteris Zēvalds (Peter Seewald), a teacher and language researcher of the 19th century; the article by Jānis Valdmanis is dedicated to Laimdots Ceplītis, a significant personality in Latvian linguistics in the second half of the 20th century.

In research of contemporary language, mainly the topics related to lexis have been examined. Dite Liepa and Kristīne Mežapuķe have analysed the use of language by TV journalists qualitatively, emphasising the lexical and stylistic errors and suggesting ways to avoid them. Evija Liparte has researched the language of internet portals and discovered many neologisms (compound nouns) created during the Covid-19 pandemic and semantically reflecting facts and processes of the time. The article interestingly reveals people’s creativity in word-formation. Ilze Štrausa’s article deals with the motivating factors for choosing cats’ names nowadays in socio-onomastic aspects.

Several linguists have turned to the structure of the language of science: Agnese Dubova has analysed structure elements in introductions of scientific articles, Iveta Kopankina and Artūrs Viļums have examined and evaluated the elements of text-formation which express the dimensions of place and time in Latvian scientific articles.

Part II consists of articles analysing important issues in contemporary linguistics synchronically within three thematic circles. Language and environment research is the most widely represented. Several articles are dedicated to characteristics of the language of science – in text-formation aspect (Diāna Laiveniece; Dzintra Šulce, Dana Tihomirova), examining the choice of languages (Dzintra Lele-Rozentāle, Baiba Egle) and language use in Joycean studies (Sigita Ignatjeva).

The issues of grammar and semantics are reviewed in comparison of Latvian verb būt and Lithuanian verb būti because the differences in their meanings are significant in the acquisition of the Baltic languages (Inga Kaija, Daiva Puškoriutė-Ridulienė). Theoretical and practical opportunities for improvement in foreign language studies have also been researched (Līga Beļicka, Ruta Svētiņa; Diāna Liepa). The pandemic rhetoric and the state president’s rhetoric have been studied (Eglė Gabrėnaitė, Domantė Vaišvylaitė; Līga Romāne-Kalniņa) and the discourse of children’s rights has been described (Andrejs Gorbunovs). Regina Kvašytė and Kazimieras Župerka have compared villagers’ names in Lithuanian and Latvian languages; Olga Billere has analysed the similarities and differences in proverbs and sayings.

Two authors have discussed the issues in translation (Baiba Egle; Linda Gaile), and another two have examined the terminology problems (Nedas Jurgaitis; Nijolė Litevkienė).

The collection of scientific articles, “The Word: Aspects of Research”, is included in the EBSCO database; information on the collection and the articles published are available at the Latvian National Digital Library. All the articles have a DOI index.

Wishing an engaging reading and a valuable immersion in linguistic issues,


Gunta Smiltniece, Linda Lauze,


of scientific articles’ collection

“The Word: Aspects of Research”



I daļa

Fonētika, gramatika, leksika, stilistika

Vārda diahroniskais un areālais aspekts


Brigita Bušmane

Dravanta, svilpene, circeņu zupa un citi putru resp. zupu nosaukumi latviešu valodas izloksnēs 
Dravanta, svilpene, circeņu zupa and other Names of Porridge resp. Soup in Regional Sub-dialects of Latvia

Anna Frīdenberga

Pēda, pēdējs un pēdīgs 16. un 17. gadsimta rakstu avotos
Pēda, pēdējs and pēdīgs in the Written Sources of the 16th and 17th Centuries

Daiki Horiguči

Aizgūto pamatverbu un prefiksverbu lietojuma skaitliskās attiecības
Quantitative Relations of the Use of Loaned Base-verbs and Prefixed Verbs

Ilga Jansone

Silvijas Raģes (1928.2.XI–1976.20.VII) devums latviešu valodniecībā
Contribution of Silvija Raģe (1928.2.XI1976.20.VII) to Latvian Linguistics 

Agita Kazakeviča

Divdabis un palīgteikums jeb plašākas konstrukcijas ar divdabi mūsdienu tekstos
Participle and Subordinate Clause or Extended Detached Participle Constructions in Contemporary Texts

Iveta Kopankina

Vadībzinātnes jomas zinātnisko tekstu ievaddaļu makrostruktūras un mikrostruktūras sākotnējās izpētes rezutāti
Results of the Pilot Study of Macro- and Microstructures in the Introductory Parts of Scientific Texts in Management Science 

Justīne Kuzņecova

Leksēmas krāpt, krāpnieks un to sinonīmi latviešu tautasdziesmās
Lexemes krāpt ‘to cheat’, krāpnieks ‘cheater’and Their Synonyms in Latvian Folksongs

Sintija Ķauķīte

Abreviatūras publicistikā un interneta portālos
Abbreviations in Mass Media Texts and Internet Portals 

Kristīne Levāne-Petrova

Ciešamās kārtas tagadnes divdabju funkcionālā daudznozīmība
The Present Passive Participle and Its Different Functions in Latvian

Liene Markus-Narvila

Ā-celma verbu vienskaitļa un daudzskaitļa 2. personas refleksīvās formas galotne: LVDA materiāli
Die Endung der Reflexivform des Verbes mit ā-Stamm in der 2. Person Singular und Plural: das Material des LVDA 

Rafael Martin Calvo

Morphological Typology of Affixed Evaluative Forms in Spanish and Latvian
Afiksēto evaluatīvo atvasinājumu morfoloģiska tipoloģija spāņu un latviešu valodā 

Bronius Maskuliūnas

Senųjų lietuviškų tekstų leksikos semantika: liežuvis ir kalba
The Vocabulary of Old Lithuanian Texts: the Nouns liežuvis ‘tongue’ and kalba ‘language’ 

Ieva Ozola

Lejaskurzemes izlokšņu aprakstos neminētie: daļēji lokāmie divdabji
Die in den beschreibungen der Niederkurländische Mundarten nicht Erwähnten, Teilweise Deklinierbaren Partizipien 

Sanda Rapa

Vietvārda mūžs
Curriculum Vitae of Place Name 

Anitra Roze

Jaunvārdu atlases kritēriji „Mūsdienu latviešu valodas vārdnīcā”
Criteria for Selecting Neologisms to Include in the „Modern Latvian Dictionary” 

Anna Stafecka

Dažas verba formu paralēles Latgalē un Lejaskurzemē
Some Parallel Verb Forms in Latgale and Lower Kurzeme 

Daiga Straupeniece

Lingvistiskās īpatnības Būtiņģes un Sventājas teicējas XX gadsimta 60. gadu vēstulēs
Linguistic Features in the 1960s Letters of Informant from Butinge and Šventoji  

Agris Timuška

Daži dialektāli graudkopības termini: ģeolingvistisks pārskats
Some Dialectal Grain Farming Terms: a Geolinguistic Survey  

Anta Trumpa

Daži īpatnēji negatīvu īpašību apzīmējumi Jaunās Derības latviešu tulkojumā (1685)
Some Specific Denotations of Negative Qualities in the 1685 Latvian Translation of the New Testament

Edita Valiuliene

The Metaphoric Use of the English cool and its Cultural Background
Metaforiskais cool lietojums angļu valodā un tā kultūrkonteksts 

 Daira Vēvere

Patskaņu un divskaņu zuduma un ar to saistīto fonētisko pārveidojumu noturīgums dziļajās tāmnieku izloksnēs
The Stability of the Loss of Monophthongs and Diphthongs and Related Phonetic Changes in the Deep Tamian Subdialects 

II daļa

Valoda un vide
Tulkošanas jautājumi

Vineta Apse
Monta Farneste

Problems in Tertiary Level Essays
Problēmas augstskolas līmeņa esejās 

Ilze Auziņa
Kristīne Levāne-Petrova
Roberts Darģis

Latviešu valodas apguvēju kļūdu analīze: pareizrakstības kļūdas
Analysis of the Latvian Language Errors: Spelling Errors  

Agata Babina

Verba būt lietojums spāņu un latviešu valodā lingvodidaktiskiem mērķiem
The Use of the Verb to be in Spanish and Latvian Languages for Linguodidactic Purposes 

Agita Baltgalve

Vārds kā simbols ķīniešu „Pārmaiņu grāmatā”
Word as a Symbol in Chinese "Book of Changes” 

Karolina Butkuvienė

Identity Construction through Linguistic Means: Case studies of Young Adult Fiction
Zur Bedeutung der Sprachmittel bei der Identitätsfindung: Untersuchung der Jugendliteratur 

Aina Būdvytytė
Silvija Papaurėlytė-Klovienė

Tėvas kaip pasaulio kategorizacijos atskaitos taškas lietuvių ir
vokiečių kalbų pasaulėvaizdžiuose

The Father as a Reference Point of the World Categorization in the Worldviews of the Lituanian and German Languages 

Agnese Dubova

Sekundāro zinātnisko tekstu atlase un to makrostruktūras izpēte
Wahl der sekundären wissensschaftlichen Texte und deren makrostrukturelle Erforschung 

Andrejs Gorbunovs

Bērnu tiesību valodas vēsturiskā attīstība Latvijas teritorijā:
bērnu tiesību valodas salīdzinājums Vietējo civillikumu kopojumā un Civillikumā

Historical Development of Children’s Rights Language in Latvia: Comparison of Children’s Rights Language in Local Civil Code and Civil Law 

Ingars Gusāns
Mūzikas kluba „Melnā piektdiena“ afišas intervietnē
Music club᾽s "Melnā piektdiena" Posters in 

Anita Helviga

Vārda episks nozīmes transformācija mūsdienu latviešu valodā
Meaning Transformation of the Word episks in the Contemporary Latvian Language 

Larisa Iļjinska 
Oksana Ivanova

Pragmatic Adaptation within Cognitive Approach to Translation of Popular Science Texts
Pragmatiskā adaptācija kognitīvajā pieejā populārzinātnisko tekstu tulkošanai

Oksana Ivanova

LSP Text Translation Teaching: Communicative Competence
VSM teksta tulkošanas mācīšana: komunikatīvā kompetence

Inga Kaija

Pretējā virziena valodas apguvēju tekstu analīze valodas apguvē
Analysis of Opposite Direction Learner Texts in Language Acquisition

Игopь Kopoлeв

Moдycная opганизация дискурсивных практик национального кооперативного коммуникативного поведения украинцев, русских, литовцев и американцев (США)
Mode-organization of Discursive Practices of the National Cooperative Communicative Behaviour of Ukrainians, Russians, Lithuanians, and Americans (USA)

Nijolė Litevkienė
Jeļena Korosteļova

Evolution of Lithuanian Anatomical Terominology: Anatomical Terms in Kazimieras Kuzavinis’ Dictionary Lotynų-Lietuvių kalbų žodynas
Lietuviešu anatomijas terminu attīstība: anatomijas termini Kazimiera Kuzaviņa Latīņu-lietuviešu valodas vārdnīcā 

Vineta Poriņa

Kritiskā incidenta metode Latvijas sabiedrības divvalodības pētniecībā 
The Critical Incident Technique in the Research into Bilingualism in Latvia’s Society

Valda Rudziša
Silga Sviķe
Solvita Štekerhofa

Juridisko pamatterminu glosārijs līgumtiesībās Latvijā izdoto nozarvārdnīcu kontekstā
Glossary of Contract Law Terms in the Context of Term Glossaries Issued in Latvia

Jānis Sīlis

Intertekstualitāte kanoniska oriģināldarba interpretācijā netradicionālā angļu avottekstā un tā latviešu tulkojumā
Intertextuality in an Untraditional English Source Text Based on an Interpretation of a Canonic Original Text and a Latvian Translation of the Source Text 

Haтaлия Cтeфaнoвa

Meтодическая процедура приминения сопоставительно-параметрического метода для анализа сем оценочно-маркированных слов англ. good / укр. добрий-добро 
Methodological Procedure of Applying the Comparative-Parametric Method for the Analysis of Semes of Evaluative Marked Words En. good/Ukr. добрий-дoбро  

Solveiga Sušinskienė

Nominalizations as Cohesive Devices in Mass Media Texts
Nominalizācijas kā sakarīguma paņēmieni plašsaziņas līdzekļu tekstos 

Silga Sviķe
Arturs Stalažs

Jaunās botāniskās vārdnīcas” mikrostruktūra: tradicionālais, mainīgais, inovatīvais
Microstructure of the New Dictionary of Botanical Terms: Traditional, Variable and Innovative Aspects 

Ilze Štrausa

Kāpēc tevi tā sauc?
Why is That Your Name? 

Daiva Šveikauskienė
Arūnas Ribikauskas
Vytautas Šveikauskas

Lietuvių kalbos žodžių kompiuterinis kodavimas
Computerkodierung der Wörter von litauischen Sprache